The first molecular phylogeny of Lynceus (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Laevicaudata) is presented together with a description of anewspecies of laevicaudatan branchiopod from Chile, Lynceus huentelauquensis, sp. nov.DNAsequences were obtained from six species of Lynceus using freshly collected specimens from Europe, North America, South America, and Australia and combined with GenBank sequences from previous studies. Specimens of the new species were collected from a pool on the Huentelauquén Plains near Huentelauquén City. Our molecular analyses placed L. huentelauquensis, sp. nov. within Lynceus and close to a cluster of Australian species, and revealed morphological misidentifications, crosscontamination, or incorrect upload in earlier GenBank sequences. L. huentelauquensis, sp. nov. is separated from other Lynceus primarily by the morphology of the rostrum and the male claspers. L. huentelauquensis, sp. nov. is thefirst described laevicaudatan from Chile, the sixth from South America, and the 13th from the Americas. The morphology of laevicaudatans from the Americas is reviewed and an updated key to the (male) Lynceidae of the region is provided. Our study highlights the necessity of a revision of Laevicaudata using multiple genetic markers as well as thorough morphological studies on a greater number of taxa.