Saxifraga cuneifolia L. (sect. Gymnopera, Saxifragaceae) is a plant distributed in the main mountain ranges of southern Europe, from the eastern Pyrenees to the eastern Carpathian. Currently, two subspecies are recognized based on morphological characteristics: S. cuneifolia subsp. cuneifolia grows in the Maritime Alps and North Apennines and S. cuneifolia subsp. robusta is located in the remaining area of distribution. A more delicate form and a smaller number of flowers in S. cuneifolia subsp. cuneifolia are the morphological characteristics that differentiate this subspecies from the widespread S. cuneifolia subsp. robusta. To explore the genetic diversity and the subspecific geographic patterns of S. cuneifolia s. l. we conducted a molecular study of nuclear and plastid sequences. Samples of S. cuneifolia s. l. have been analysed throughout the distribution area of this species. Our results, based on nuclear (ITS) and plastid (rbcL, trnL–F, and psbA–trnH) markers, showed a genetic characterization of both subspecies presenting discriminant haplotypes and ribotypes that confirm the current subspecific systematics.