Helping decision making for reliable and cost-effective 2b-RAD sequencing and genotyping analyses in non-model species

Barbanti, AnnaTorrado, HèctorMacpherson, Enrique Bargelloni, LucaFranch, RafaellaCarreras, CarlosPascual, Marta.  Molecular Ecology Resources : doi:10.1111/1755-0998.13144 (2020)  DIGITAL CSIC

High-throughput sequencing has revolutionized population and conservation genetics. RAD sequencing methods, such as 2b-RAD, can be used on species lacking a reference genome. However, transferring protocols across taxa can potentially lead to poor results. We tested two different IIB enzymes (AlfI and CspCI) on two species with different genome sizes (the loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta and the sharpsnout seabream Diplodus puntazzo) to build a set of guidelines to improve 2b-RAD protocols on nonmodel organisms while optimising costs. Good results were obtained even with degraded samples, showing the value of 2b-RAD in studies with poor DNA quality. However, library quality was found to be a critical parameter on the number of reads and loci obtained for genotyping. Resampling analyses with different number of reads per individual showed a trade-off between number of loci and number of reads per sample. The resulting accumulation curves can be used as a tool to calculate the number of sequences per individual needed to reach a mean depth ≥ 20 reads to acquire good genotyping results. Finally, we demonstrated that selective-base ligation does not affect genomic differentiation between individuals, indicating that this technique can be used in species with large genome sizes to adjust the number of loci to the study scope, to reduce sequencing costs and to maintain suitable sequencing depth for a reliable genotyping without compromising the results. Finally, we provide a set of guidelines to improve 2b-RAD protocols on non-model organisms with different genome sizes, helping decision-making for a reliable and cost-effective genotyping.